Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-standard, emacs-meta, emacs- ctlx, vi, vi-move, vi-command, and vi-insert. vi is equivalent to vi-command. In emacs, you can create any keyboard shortcut to any command. This page shows you how. For example, if you want 【 F9 】 for. 17 Emacs. Während VI (mit all seinen Klonen) zweifellos der verbreitetste Editor auf Unix Emacs wurde (größtenteils) in Lisp geschrieben, Befehle.
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Modifying Shell BehaviorPrevious: Bourne Shell BuiltinsUp: This section describes builtin commands which are unique to or have been extended in Bash. Without arguments or with the -p option, alias prints the list of aliases on the standard output in a form that allows them to be reused as input.
If arguments are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose value is given. If no value is given, the name and value of the alias is printed. Aliases are described in Aliases. Display current Readline see Command Line Editing key and function bindings, bind a key sequence to a Readline function or macro, or set a Readline variable.
Each non-option argument is a command as it would appear in a Readline initialization file see Readline Init Filebut each binding or command must be passed as a separate meacs e. Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent bindings.
Acceptable keymap names are emacsemacs-standardemacs-metaemacs-ctlxvivi-movevi-commandbefwhle vi-insert. Display Readline function names and bindings in such a way that they can be used as input or in a Readline initialization file. Display Readline variable names and values in such a way that they can be used emqcs input or in a Readline initialization file. Display Readline key sequences bound to macros and the strings they output in such a way that they can be used as input or in a Readline initialization file.
Cause shell-command to be executed whenever keyseq is entered. List all key sequences bound to shell commands and the associated commands in a format that can be reused as input. Run a shell builtin, passing it argsand return its exit status.
This is useful when defining a shell function with the same name as a shell builtin, retaining the functionality of the builtin within the function. The return status is non-zero if shell-builtin is not a shell builtin command. Returns the context of any active subroutine call a shell function or a script executed with the. Without exprcaller displays the line number and source filename of the current subroutine call.
If a non-negative integer is supplied as exprcaller displays the line number, subroutine name, and source file corresponding to that position in the current execution call stack. This extra information may be used, for example, to print a stack trace.
The current frame is frame 0. The return value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a subroutine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position in the call stack. Runs command with arguments ignoring any shell function named command.
Only shell builtin commands or commands found by searching the PATH are executed. The -p option means to use a default value for PATH that is guaranteed to find all of the standard utilities.
The return status in this case is if command cannot be found or an error occurred, and the exit status of command otherwise.
If either the -V or -v option is supplied, a description of command is printed. The -v option causes a single word indicating the command or file name used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a more verbose description.
In this case, the return status is zero if command is found, and non-zero if not. Declare variables and give them attributes.
If no name s are given, then display the values of variables instead. The -p option will display the attributes and values of each name. When -p is befehlf with name arguments, additional options, other than -f and -Fare ignored. When -p is supplied without name arguments, declare will display the attributes and values of all variables having the attributes specified by the additional options.
If befehe other options are supplied with -pdeclare will display the attributes and values of all shell variables. The -f option wmacs restrict the display to shell functions. The -F option inhibits the display of function definitions; only the function name and attributes are printed.
If the extdebug shell option is enabled using shopt see The Shopt Builtinthe source file name and line number where each name is defined are displayed as well. The -g option forces variables to be created or modified at the global scope, even when declare is executed in a shell function.
It is ignored in all other cases. The following options can be used to restrict output to variables with the specified attributes or to give variables attributes:. Each name is an associative array variable see Arrays. The variable is to be treated as befehl integer; arithmetic evaluation see Shell Arithmetic is performed when the variable is assigned a value. When the variable is assigned a value, all upper-case characters are converted to lower-case.
The upper-case attribute is disabled. Give each name the nameref attribute, making it a name reference to another variable. That other variable is defined by the value of name. The nameref attribute cannot be applied to array variables.
Make name s readonly. These names cannot then be assigned values by subsequent assignment statements or unset. Give each name the trace attribute. The trace attribute has no special meaning for variables. When the variable is assigned a value, all lower-case characters are converted to upper-case. The lower-case attribute is disabled. When used in a function, declare makes each name local, as with the local command, unless the -g option is used.
When using -a or -A and the compound assignment syntax to create array variables, additional attributes do not take befele until subsequent assignments. Output the arg s, separated by spaces, terminated with a newline. The return status is 0 unless a write error occurs. If -n is specified, the trailing newline is suppressed.
If the -e option is given, interpretation of the following backslash-escaped characters is enabled. The -E option disables the interpretation of these escape characters, even on systems where they are interpreted by default. Enable and disable builtin shell commands. Disabling a builtin allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin to be executed without specifying a full pathname, even though the shell normally searches for builtins before disk commands.
If -n is used, the name s become disabled.
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Otherwise name s are enabled. If the -p option is supplied, or no name arguments appear, befehpe list of shell builtins is printed. With no other arguments, the list consists of all enabled shell builtins.
The -a option means to list each builtin with an indication of brfehle or not it is enabled. The -f option means to load the new builtin command name from shared object filenameon systems that support dynamic loading.
The -d option will delete a builtin loaded with -f. If there are no options, a list of the shell builtins is displayed.
If -s is used with -fthe new builtin becomes a special builtin see Special Builtins. The return status is zero unless a name is not a shell builtin or there is an error loading a new builtin from a shared object. Display helpful information about builtin commands. If pattern is specified, help gives detailed help on all commands matching patternotherwise a list of the builtins is printed. The let builtin allows arithmetic to be performed on shell variables.
Each expression is evaluated according to the rules given below in Shell Arithmetic. If the last expression evaluates to 0, let returns 1; otherwise 0 is returned.
For each argument, a local variable named name is created, and assigned value. The option can be any of the options accepted by declare. The return status is zero unless local is used outside a function, an invalid name is supplied, or name is a readonly variable.
Read lines from the standard input into the indexed array variable arrayor from file descriptor fd if the -u option is supplied.
Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:. The first character of delim is used to terminate each input line, rather than newline.
Evaluate callback each time quantum P lines are read. The -c option specifies quantum. If -C is specified without -cthe default quantum is When callback is evaluated, it is supplied the index of the next array element to be assigned and the line to be assigned to that element as additional arguments.
If not supplied with an explicit origin, mapfile will clear array before assigning to it. Write the formatted arguments to the standard output under the control of the format. The -v option causes the output to be assigned to the variable var rather than being printed to the standard output.
The format is a character string which contains three types of objects: In addition to the standard printf 1 formats, printf interprets the following extensions:. Causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in the corresponding argument in the same way as echo -e see Bash Builtins. Causes printf to output the corresponding argument in a format that can be reused as shell input. Causes printf to output the date-time string resulting from using datefmt as a format string for strftime 3.